The demonstration in Saint Petersburg on 22 January 1905 had been duly announced beforehand. Priest George Gapon, who tried to channel the protest of the workers, had given notice in a letter to Czar Nicolas the previous day. Gapon had also written the petition that was to be presented in the Winter Palace. An eight-hour working day and universal suffrage were the main demands. On 22 January soldiers awaited the peaceful procession of people bearing icons and portraits of the czar. One hundred fifty people were killed. Gapon survived and found shelter in the home of Maxim Gorky that night. This 'Bloody Sunday' is commemorated as the start of the 1905 Revolution.