Finland had been subject to the Russians since 1809. The general strike of 1905 in Russia spread to Finland and local people's committees were established here as well. As in Russia, the Tsar promised reforms. In his 'October' manifesto of 4 November 1905, he confirmed the rights of the Finnish people. The Finnish politician and theorist Otto Wilhelm Kuusinen was politically active in this period. In the magazine Sosialistinen Aikakauslehti he wrote articles about the revolutionary situation: 'The Russian Revolution and Finland', 'Anarchy and Revolution', and 'Socialism and Freedom of Individuals'. Kuusinen was later to become a member of the Politburo and adviser to Stalin. His ashes were kept in the Kremlin wall.