Not surprisingly, many of the Institute's archives relating to Latin America come from emigrants or immigrants from southern European countries or vice versa. The Italian communist Dario Canale lived in Brazil and thoroughly researched the history of the Partido Communista do Brazil (PCB). The Spanish anarchist Diego Abad de Santillan spent a large part of his life in Argentina, corresponding with Emilio López Arango, Nicolás T. Bernal, Enrique Flores Magón and other leading figures in Argentina and Mexico. The Chilean historian Marcelo Segall Rosenmann came to Amsterdam to work at the IISH in 1975 and brought with him an impressive collection of materials concerning political activists, political parties, the labour movement, the student movement, agrarian reform in Chile and other Latin American countries. Another scholar who left Chile after the military took over in 1973 was André Gunder Frank, the author of many well-known studies on underdevelopment and Latin America. He eventually worked at Amsterdam University and deposited his archive at the IISH.
Chilean exiles and refugees in Amsterdam during the Pinochet regime established organizations for mutual aid which were also vast documentary resources on the situation in their country of birth, for example the Center for Chilean Culture (Centrum voor Chileense Cultuur). Closely related are the archives of Solidarity Committees in Europe. These include the El Salvador Komitee, Informationsbüro Nicaragua, Human Rights in Guatemala collection, Solidariteitskomitee Mexico, and the documentation on Argentine Madres in the archive of Liesbeth den Uyl.
Vast files on Latin America are to be found in the archives of international organizations, for instance: Committee for the Defense of Human and Trade Union rights in Latin America, correspondence with hundreds of trade unions in Latin America and documents of the Organización Regional Interamericana de Trabajadores in the ICFTU archive. The Fourth International had a stronghold in the Latin Bureau during the 1960's and the Quatrième Internationale Posadiste originated in Argentina.
Microfilms of archives kept in Latin America complete the IISH collections, including the Central Obrera Boliviana, Federación de Sindicatos de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia 1946-1993, Partido dos Trabalhadores Brazil 1980-2003.