IIn 2008 the IISH acquired an extensive collection of archival materials relating to the anti-apartheid and Southern Africa solidarity groups in The Netherlands. It concerns the archives and related library and documentary collections of the three former anti-apartheid groups which merged in 1997 into the Netherlands institute for Southern Africa (NiZA; since 2012 ActionAid-Netherlands): the Holland Committee on Southern Africa (previously Angola Comittee), the Eduardo Mondlane Foundation and the Institute for Southern Africa, as well as its predecessors – the Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement and the South Africa Committee. The NiZA collection also includes the archives of the organisation Broadcasting for Radio Freedom, some local groups, the SADWU Supportgroup and individual activists like David de Beer, Willem van Manen and Karel Roskam.
On that stage the IISH already had the archives of the Workinggroup Kairos, the SA/NAM Association, the Defence and Aid Fund Netherlands and the Southern Africa projects of ICCO, as well as various trade union archives with documents on this subject. In the past few years, additional archives were acquired, relating to anti-apartheid and southern Africa solidarity work, such as the papers of Martin Bailey and the archives of the Azania Committee, the National South Africa group of the ABVA-KABO trade union, the Shipping Research Bureau and the Association of West-European Parliamentarians Against Apartheid.
In this way, the IISH developed an extensive and comprehensive anti-apartheid and Southern Africa solidarity collection, which not only includes materials on the Dutch movement but also on and from elsewhere in Europe and South(ern) Africa. The archives and related collections cover the period from 1950 to 2000. The library and documentation material includes large numbers of books, periodicals, photographs, posters and hundreds of videos, cassettes, badges, flags , T-shirts and other memorabilia. Both the archives and other materials in this collection have been processed in the IISH catalogue.
Almost all the archives in the anti-Apartheid and Southern Africa collectionhave been processed since 2008. The other archives mentioned have been processed only partially; see for more information the detailed overview of the archives in this collection. The archives and documentation in the anti-apartheid and Southern Africa collection can be accessed through the website (catalogue) and the reading room of the IISH. It is also always possible to ask for the assistance of Kier Schuringa, the archivist of this collection: firstname.lastname@example.org
These webpages on the anti-apartheid and Southern Africa collection not only provide a description of the archives, documentation and audio-visual materials of the collection, but also feature a section with background information on the Dutch contribution to the international solidarity campaign in support of the struggle against apartheid and colonialism in Southern Africa. This section includes two comprehensive web dossiers on the anti-apartheid work in The Netherlands from 1948 to 1994 and on the link between Nelson Mandela and The Netherlands. Finally, there is a blog with reports on the various activities with and around these archival materials in and outside The Netherlands.
Archives from NiZA, fully processed by archivist Kier Schuringa, in alphabetical order. These archives are all freely accessible. All inventories are in Dutch only.
Angola Comitee/Holland Committee on Southern Africa 1961-1997
Contents: Minutes and related documents of the committee meetings, general correspondence and organisational documents; documents concerning the political campaigns and activities of the committee like the (major) campaigns, the oil- and sportsboycot, the economic-programme, activities on Namibia, Angola and Mozambique and the women’s programme; documents of the material support programme (projects) of the HCSA, including the work of the Liberation Fund and the Zimbabwe coöperants programme, as well as the various cooperation networks of the committee with organisations in the Netherlands and internationally; an annex with the archives of the Foundation International Sanctions Year 1982, the Foundation Amandla and two BVD-dossiers (National Intelligence Service) on resp. the Holland Committee on Southern Africa and Sietse Bosgra; a collection of old documentation of the Angola Comittee 1960-1976, from de documentation collections of the Angola Comittee and HCSA which were already donated to the IISH around 1990 and now have been integrated in this archive. From the first 10 years of the committee only correspondence has been preserved; minutes and other archival materials almost exclusively date from 1970 onwards.
Broadcasting for Radio Freedom (Omroep voor Radio Freedom - OvRF) 1982-1996
Contents: The archive consists of minutes and related documents of the executive committee and board of the (Foundation) Broadcasting for Radio Freedom; general correspondence 1982-1996; organisational documents, including the minutes of the technical working groups and financial reports; documents concerning the activities, more or less in chronological order, largely relating to the Jabulani-conference and the Radio Freedom Institute; some documentation.
Annex: archival items from the National Broadcasting Foundation (NOS) from 1958 on the relations with South Africa and (Broadcasting for) Radio Freedom.
Committee South Africa (Comité Zuid-Afrika - CZA) 1960-1971
Contents: Minutes of Executive Committee 1960-1967, correspondence 1960-1967, financial and other organisational documents 1960-1971 and correspondence and other documents on various activities esp. in the First half of the 1960s; documents on the cooperation with and activities of the Student Comittee South Africa (Stucoza) 1960-1971; press cuttings from Dutch newspapers on the Netherlands and South Africa, mainly from 1960-1965.
Dutch AAM (Anti-Apartheids Beweging Nederland - AABN) 1971-1994
Contents: minutes and related documents of the plenary meetings, Executive Committee and staff meetings, annual reports, general correspondence, financial and other organisational documents 1971-1994. Followed by four series of reports, correspondence and other documents of the main working groups and long-term campaigns, other actions and activities, as much as possible in chronological order on the years 1971-1994. Consequently documents relating to the various links of cooperation of the Dutch AAM throughout the years and the various foundations the Dutch AAM established for different mainly large-scale activities (esp. CASA and Malibongwe) after 1987. Finally a separate annex with big sized notebooks with comments by visitors of the South Africa exhibition in the Anne Frank House in 1973.
Please note that the finding aid for these archives comes with a chronology of the Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement (in Dutch) 1971-1994.
Eduardo Mondlane Foundation (Eduardo Mondlane Stichting – EMS) 1969-1998
Contents: Minutes of the board, staff and plenary meetings of the EMS; general correspondence 1969-1996, both in The Netherlands and internationally, including the liberation movements and later governments of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde; correspondence between the EMS-offices in Amsterdam and Maputo; minutes and documents of the working groups on coöperants and projects, as well as the women’s groups of the EMS; financial documents 1970-1998; documents on the information and publicity work of the EMS; documents on the work of the EMS in and in relation to Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde – arranged in sections on coöperants (including many circular letters etc.), projects and other activities; documents on the Amsterdam-Beira campaign and city links 1986-1998; documents on the international, national and local cooperation networks of the EMS, like ECASAAMA, COA and others; documentation 1972, 1981.
Institute for Southern Africa (IZA) 1993-1997
Contents: The archive consists of ninutes and related documents of the board of IZA, general correspondence, documents relating to the organization, the finances and the Library, Documentation and Information Centre (BIDOC) of IZA; documents relating to the activities (culture, violence, education, other) and the various cooperation networks of the institute in The Netherlands and internationally.
SADWU Support Group (Steungroep) 1988-2000
Contents: Minutes, correspondence (especially with SADWU) an documents on the activities of the Support Group, as well as documentation (including official SADWU reports) and publications on domestic servants and their organization in South Africa.
• David de Beer 1974-1998
Contents: Documents relating to his work as activist and lobbyist – mainly within and from the Dutch churches – in relation to Southern Africa and specifically Namibia; annual reports, correspondence, notes, articles; documents on specific activities, including uranium from Namibia, the UN Council for Namibia, AWEPA, election monitoring in South Africa 1994, etc.; documentation on related subjects; annex on the DPSC in South Africa.
• Willem van Manen 1986-1991
Contents: Documents on lawyer van Manen’s activities in relation to South Africa; dossiers with correspondence and other documents especially on the trial of Hélène Passtoors, the public debate about the opinions of prof. Couwenberg on South Africa and an international conference on the repression against children in South Africa in September 1987.
• Karel Roskam 1952-2010
Contents: Memoires and other personal documents and correspondence; documents on his study and graduation (1960) at the Free University in Amsterdam; articles and other texts relating to Roskam’s activities as a writer, public speaker and radio commentator; documents on his work with the broadcasting organization VARA, the AEI, the Mayibuye Centre and the Radio Freedom Institute; documentation mainly of the Nigeria-Biafra conflict; annex on the Marjolein Roskam Fund.
. Gerrit Schellingerhout 1976-1984
Contents: Documents from 1976-1984, mainly on his local and regional activities in relation to the Third World and specifically Southern Africa.
. Tjitte de Vries 1966-1986
Contents: Documents on his activities in relation to Southern Africa, especially in the Boycot Outspan Actie (BOA) 1979-1986, the Foundation ISARA etc.
Some of these archives are only partially processed, but all of them can be accessed without restrictions.
ABVA-KABO. National South Africa Group (Landelijke Zuid-Afrika Groep) 1989-2001
Contents: Correspondence and other documents in relation to the solidarity campaigns and visits to Southern Africa of this trade union group (of public sector workers).
AWEPAA (Association of West-European Parliamentarians Against Apartheid) 1982-1994
Contents: all publications, lobbying initiatives, position papers and action plans, correspondence, minutes of board meetings, financial reports, documentation re positions of governments, UN, Commonwealth, western NGO's and research institutes.
Annex: Files on Southern Africa of AWEPAA President Nico Jan Scholten as a member of Dutch Parliament in the 1970 and 1980s.
Azania Committee 1974-1996
Contents: Minutes and other internal documents, correspondence and documents relating to the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), BCMA, the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO), WOSA, black trade unions, Umtapo, et al.; documents relating to support projects and actions and campaigns including Sharpeville and Soweto commemorations, political prisoners, local activities in Rotterdam, etc. The archive also contains a lot of documentation concerning the South African organizations with which the committee maintained contacts, such as PAC, AZAPO and other Black Consciousness organizations
Martin Bailey Papers 1964-2006
Contents: Documents on the United Nations oil delivery sanctions against South Africa and efforts by anti-apartheid organizations to tighten the oil embargo; files containing press clippings, correspondence, notes and other material, many of which refer to individual companies (i.e. BP, Caltex, Exxon Mobil, Shell, Texaco) or oil tankers such as the Almare Terza. List made by Martin Bailey.
CASA-koor Nederland 1987-2015
Contents: Minutes, annual reports, correspondence, songbooks, press cuttings, etc. as well as photographs, recordings and t-shirts of this choir singing South African struggle songs.
Defence and Aid Fund Netherlands 1965-1991
Contents: Minutes and other documents of the board; correspondence with other organisations; documents on the family adoption work and projects; documents on the group Lawyers against Apartheid in The Netherlands; extensive documentation.
ICCO (development projects in Southern Africa) 1980-2001
Contents: Documents relating to the development projects of this interchurch organization for development cooperation in The Netherlands. List made by Ed Kool.
SA/NAM Association 1986-1993
Contents: Minutes of meetings, correspondence, financial and other documents relating to activities of NGOs in South Africa and Namibia 1988-1992; files of projects conducted by the Kagiso Trust in South Africa; documentation. List made by Bernard Mantel.
Shipping Research Bureau (SRB) 1979-1995
Contents: agendas, minutes and documents from Shipping Research Bureau (SRB) board and staff meetings and from so-called ‘oil meetings’ of the Holland Committee on Southern Africa (KZA) and the Working Group Kairos, and annual reports, general correspondence and various documents relating to the internal affairs of the SRB. The core of the collection consists of documents relating to the Bureau’s investigations into oil tankers and their movements, shipping and oil companies and countries, which resulted in a series of publications on violations of the oil embargo against South Africa, and of further documents relating to research assistance given to campaigns waged nationally and internationally against companies and countries involved in embargo violations, including the Shell campaign; other documents relate to the South African energy sector, counter-strategies against the embargo, and more. A smaller part covers research into and boycott campaigns against South Africa’s coal exports. An annex consists for the most part of documents from after 1995, when the SRB had discontinued its research following the demise of apartheid. List made by Richard Hengeveld.
Working Group Kairos 1971-2005
Contents: annual reports, minutes of the Kairos executive committee and correspondence - both general and on specific subjects; documents on the group’s information and publicity work, the relations with Dutch church institutions and organisations as well as on the Kairos activities in areas like sanctions and the Dutch policies towards South-Africa, human rights, the role of the churches, coal and oil (Shell), research/education/culture, Namibia, etc., including documentation and press cuttings on all these subjects.
“Wij en Zij” /FNV Mondiaal 1979-2007
Contents: Dossiers on countries and regions – including Southern Africa – with correspondence, (financial) reports, publications and other documents on the work of this solidarity fund and international affairs section of the main trade union federation in the Netherlands. List made by FNV and Ed Kool (IISH).
From the libraries of the Working Group Kairos and the Netherlands institute for Southern Africa (NiZA) more than 3000 books and brochures were transferred to the IISH. Most of these have been included in the IISH-catalogue and can be found by searching in the category Books and brochures for Nederlands instituut voor Zuidelijk Afrika or Werkgroep Kairos (and of course on title, author, etc.). Most of these titles relate to the struggle against apartheid and colonialism in Southern Africa and the international relations with the region in the second half of the 20th century. Approximately one-third of these books deal with South Africa; other major selections relate to Namibia, Zimbabwe and Southern Africa as a whole.
The different organisations contributed some 500 periodicals, often with extensive holdings, from and on Southern Africa to the library of the IISH. They are now all integrated in the IISH holdings and can be found in the IISH-catalogue by searching in the category ‘periodicals’ for Nederlands instituut voor Zuidelijk Afrika or Werkgroep Kairos (or on their title).
From the Library, Information and Documentation Centre (BIDOC) of NiZA some 50 meters of documents and another 15 meters of press cuttings from the 1970s to 1990s were transferred to the IISH. This documentation-material is not integrated in the IISH-collection and catalogue and can only be accessed through the archivist Kier Schuringa: email@example.com
This documentation consist of reports, brochures, articles, sets of press cuttings, etc. arranged on subject and date, and made accessible through some 300 lists of sources in which the documents – but also articles from periodicals and books - on a wide range of subjects are described (in the language of the source). An overview of the subjects of the lists of sources is available in pdf-format, as well as three lists of sources as example on the cultural boycott of South Africa, the armed struggle of the ANC and Dutch sanctions policy on South Africa
The documents also include an extensive series of biographical dossiers on Dutch, South African and other activists in the struggle against apartheid and colonialism in Southern Africa. Finally, the press cuttings consist of three chronologically arranged series – mainly from the Dutch press between 1970 and 2000 – on and relating to resp. South Africa, Namibia/Angola and Zimbabwe/Mozambique.
The photo collections of these organisations were, together with a large number later collected photographs by NiZA, transferred to the IISH – in total almost 18.000 photographs. 800 of these were individually processed into the IISH catalogue; search in Visual documents for photo and niza or Kairos. The remaining photographs were initially made available through four lists, but in 2016 partly re-arranged, more comprehensively described and processed into five IISH-collections:
Anti-Apartheids Beweging Nederland Photo Collection 1899-2004 (5620 photographs on South(ern) Africa from the collection of the Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement and NiZA from the 1950s up till 2004)
Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika/Mondlane Stichting Photo Collection 1900-2000 (5170 photographs on Southern Africa, mostly taken between 1970 and 1997, from the collections of the Angola Committee, Holland Committee on Southern Africa and Eduardo Mondlane Foundation)
Fotocollectie AABN/KZA/EMS Nederland 1963-1997 (3283 photographs from the collections of the Dutch AAM, Holland Committee on Southern Africa and Mondlane Foundation on Anti-Apartheid and Southern Africa solidarity activities in esp. The Netherlands in the years 1963-1997)
Werkgroep Kairos Photo Collection 1952-1996 (2726 photographs on especially South Africa and Namibia, mostly taken between 1979 and 1994)
Fotocollectie Werkgroep Kairos 1979-1998 (363 photographs of the activities of the Werkgroep Kairos in in The Netherlands and internationally in relation to Shell and many other issues in de years 1979-1998)
A latest addition to the photographs is de Photo collection Frits Eisenloeffel which includes a large number of his photographs (negatives and slides) of his travels to Portugal, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Namibia and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) between 1974 and 1981.
Over 6000 slides from the collections of NiZA and Kairos were transferred to the IISH: several dozens of slide series (mostly with accompanying text- and soundmaterial) and the slide-archives of the Dutch AAM and Mondlane Foundation. They can be found in the IISH-catalogue; search in Visual materials for slide and resp. niza or kairos.
In 2008 the IISH holdings already included a large number of posters from and on Southern Africa, which came largely from the Dutch AAM, Holland Committee on Southern Africa, Kairos, etc. After checking for spares, another 1100 posters were transferred from NiZA to the IISH, processed in the catalogue and almost all of them scanned. They can be found in the IISH-catalogue; search in Visual documents for poster niza.
Over 700 of these posters originate from Southern Africa - mainly South Africa (470), including the posters produced by the ANC c.s. outside South Africa because the organisations were banned in South Africa (1970s and 1980s). Yet, also Angola (100) and Mozambique (70) feature well; some 200 of these posters were produced in The Netherlands.
With this addition, the total number of posters at the IISH from or dealing with Southern Africa now ranges around 3000 - the biggest part of these scanned as well.
From this collection two selections have been made with posters (co-)produced by the anti-apartheid and Southern Africa solidarity groups which merged into NiZA in 1997. These lists present - in chronological order and with the call number in the IISH collection - all the posters produced respectively by the South Africa Committee/Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement/Broadcasting for Radio Freedom (almost 150) and Angola Committee/Holland Committee on Southern Africa/Eduardo Mondlane Foundation (some 200) - both lists in Dutch only.
See also the selection of posters on anti-apartheid on the IISG Flickr pages.
Moreover, from the NiZA collection a large number of other visual items were added to the visual documents on Southern Africa already available at the IISH: exhibitions, drawings (for instance cartoons on censorship in South Africa), hundreds of textile items like banners, flags, bags and t-shirts, buttons (200), stickers and postcards (almost 400), etc. These can all be found in the IISH-catalogue; search in Visual documents for ‘actie Zuid-Afrika’ (or Angola, Namibia, etc.) for items from The Netherlands or ‘campaign on South Africa’ etc. for items from other countries, combined with textile, button, drawing, postcard, etc.
Approx. 250 gramophone records and audio cassettes with (struggle) music, freedom songs, radio programmes and recordings of anti-apartheid and solidarity events throughout the years, which can be found in the IISH-catalogue; search in Music and sound for audio-cassette or gramophone record and niza or kairos.
NiZA transferred in 2003 and 2008 almost 1100 video’s (with over 1500 video-items) tot he IISH: features films, documentaries, documentaries, news items and other recorded television broadcasts, largely produced between 1973 en 2007. These video’s were initially made available through two lists, but in 2016 combined into one IISH-collection: Anti-Apartheid and Southern Africa Video Collection 1960-2007
Over 1550 video’s and video-items on South(ern) Africa, other African countries and Africa in general from the collections of the Dutch AAM, Holland Committee on Southern Africa, Mondlane Foundation and NiZA; a significant part of these deal with the struggle against apartheid and the international solidarity campaign with the struggles for liberation in Southern Africa.
The 85 video’s from the Kairos collection were individually processed and can be found in the IISH-catalogue; search in Visual documents for video kairos.
For those interested in particularly the Dutch contribution to the international solidarity movement with the anti-apartheid and national liberation struggle in Southern Africa, here an initial selection of information sources is presented which can serve as background information with the archives and documentation collections of the former anti-apartheid groups which were handed over by NiZA to the IISH.
First of all a web dossier: The Netherlands against Apartheid 1948-1994: Anti-Apartheid and Southern Africa Solidarity Movements in the Netherlands, 1948-1994. Early 2009 this dossier, which was initially produced by Richard Hengeveld for the website of the Netherlands institute for Southern Africa, has been revised by the author and a number of illustration were added. The dossier contains an illustrated chronological review of the Dutch anti-apartheid organisations and activities, as well as a list of mainly local anti-apartheid initiatives in The Netherlands in the second half of the 20th century.
Early 2012 a second webdossier was added on Nelson Mandela and The Netherlands. This webdossier deals with the image of Mandela in The Netherlands throughout the years and the Dutch campaigns for his release and offers personal recollections of Mandela by Dutch activists, photographic impressions of his visits to The Netherlands and a description of the archival, audio-visual and campaigning materials on Mandela in the IISH collection.
In South Africa the South Africa Democracy Education Trust (SADET) is publishing a series of studies on the history of the national liberation struggle in South Africa and the international solidarity movement under the title The Road to Democracy.
The first two volumes deal with the struggle against apartheid in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, and in 2008 Volume 3 was published (in two parts) on the international solidarity with the struggle against apartheid under the title The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Volume 3, International Solidarity. Part 1 of this volume deals mainly with the roles of the United Nations and (the anti-apartheid movements in) the Western European countries. Former Holland Committee on Southern Africa leader Sietse Bosgra wrote the chapter in this book on the Netherlands, titled From Jan van Riebeeck to solidarity with the struggle: The Netherlands, South Africa and apartheid (pdf, 4,4Mb). Former Boycot Outspan Aktie leader Esau du Plessis recently wrote an open letter criticising Bosgra's chapter, which we also present here: Open letter Esau du Plessis (pdf, 1,2Mb).
In July 2009 Esau du Plessis produced a substantial report on the boycott campaign against South African Outspan oranges and the first years (1973-1974) of the Boycott Outspan Action (BOA) in The Netherlands, titled: The story of Outspan oranges in The Netherlands and the campaign of the Boycott Outspan Action (BOA) (pdf 218Kb).
In the Fall of 2012 Hugh Crosfield, an academic researcher at the Royal Holloway University of London, created a website in which the work of the BOA (Boycott Outspan Action) is being profiled: hughcrosfield.wordpress.com. Over the last two years he has been researching in depth the work of the BOA. His thesis Commodity boycotts, activist bodywork and race: a study of the anti-apartheid campaigns of the Boycott Outspan Action (1970-1992) and the anti-trafficking campaigns of Stop de Traffik (2006-2013) is now available as PDF (14 MB).
In 2001 the South African researcher Genevieve Lynette Klein published a study with the University of Pretoria on the role of the Dutch anti-apartheid organisations from 1960 to 1995: De strijd tegen apartheid - The role of the anti-apartheid organisations in The Netherlands 1960-1995 (124 p.; pdf, 526Kb).
In November 2012 the South African journal Historia published an article by professor Otto Terblanche of the Nelson Mandela University in Port Elizabeth on Amsterdam as ’n anti-apartheidstad. (p.150-181; pdf; 400Kb). In June 2013 the Journal of Contemporary Journalism published an article by the same author titled “De overval”: aanslag op Suid-Afrikaanse bibliotheek in Amsterdam. In March 2014 prof. Terblanche in the Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie an article on Die Nederlandse kulturele boikot teen Suid-Afrika: ’n Ontleding ; with English abstract).
In September 2013 Dutch researcher Roeland Muskens received a doctorate of the University of Amsterdam with a thesis titled Aan de goede kant – Een geschiedenis van de Nederlandse anti-apartheidsbeweging 1960-1990 (On the good side – A history of the Dutch anti-apartheid movement 1960-1990). Based on a large number of interviews and extensive archival research (amongst others at the International Institute of Social History) the author assesses the impact of the broad anti-apartheid movement on Dutch public opinion and politics in this period. To learn more about this book, you can read a six-page summary (PDF; 161 KB) of the thesis.In April 2014 Dutch publisher Aspekt launched a book based on Muskens’ thesis: Aan de goede kant: biografie van de Nederlandse anti-apartheidsbeweging 1960-1990.
Early 2014 Radical History Review published an article by Peter Limb, Richard Knight and Christine Root on anti-apartheid archives and collections throughout the world – including the anti-apartheid and Southern Africa collection of the IISH – titled The Global Antiapartheid Movement: A Critical Analysis of Archives and Collections.
In December 2014, on the occasion of the 4th UNI World Indaba held in Cape Town, the Dutch Trade Union Federation FNV published a 36-page booklet titled Help the FNV fight apartheid! 40 Years of Dutch trade union solidarity, researched and written by Richard Hengeveld largely on the basis of anti-apartheid and trade union archives held by the IISH. A fully referenced version is available as pdf (2MB).
In the years after 1994 various publications were published in the Netherlands on the relations between the Netherlands and Southern Africa in general and more specifically on the role of the anti-apartheid and solidarity groups. Through the archivist of the anti-apartheid and Southern Africa collection a number of copies of some of these publications can still be obtained (for packing and shipping costs) - contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
This applies to the following publications:
Some important websites with archives and other information on the history of the anti-apartheid and national liberation struggle in Southern Africa and the international solidarity movement.