Russian expatriates active in the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Partija Socialistov Revoljucionerov) organized a masked ball and revue in the Rue Cadet, Paris on 4 April 1911. The PSR was founded in Russia in 1902 as a consolidation and continuation of the Populist movement. Unlike the Russian Social-Democratic Party they held that the Russian peasantry was the backbone of Russian socialism. Unlike the social-democrats, they advocated armed resistance. PSR members carried out many political assassinations
The party played an important role in the Revolutions of 1905 and 1917, but after the Bolshevik victory in the Civil War the socialist revolutionaries were persecuted as mercilessly as all other revolutionary groups outside the Bolshevik party. Many of them fled from Russia and formed new groups in exile.