In April 1960 a series of large-scale student demonstrations in Turkey paralysed university campuses and led to bloody confrontations with the police. The growing tension between the government and the opposition threatened to erupt into civil war. The imposition of martial law in Istanbul and Ankara on the May 1 and the confinement of demonstrators in detention camps failed to restore order. On May 27, 1960, general Gürsel led a coup d'etat that removed President Bayar, Prime Minister Menderes, and his cabinet from power and dissolved parliament. The photo shows students fighting the police at the Istanbul University on April 28.