In the first week of June 1990, tens of thousands of Ecuadorian Indian peasants stopped delivering farm produce to the towns and blocked the main highways, picketed on the roadsides and marched in regional capitals. They demanded agrarian reform and recognition of the pluriform ethnic composition of Ecuador. The protest was called by the Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador (CONAIE) and named Levantamiento Nacional Indígena (national Indian uprising). Militants refer to this uprising as pachakutik, a word which refers to a return in time or an ethnic cultural rebirth.
Leon Zamosc, 'Agrarian Protest and the Indian Movement in the Ecuadorian Highlands' in: Contemporary Indigenous Movements in Latin America (2003)