Conducts research and collects data on the global history of labour, workers, and labour relations

Gendered Money

As economic citizenship was a pre-condition of full citizenship, the lack of economic autonomy was an important motivation during the early stages of the women’s movement. Independent of their class background, women had less access to not only financial resources but also social and cultural capital, i.e., member’s commitment. Resources are therefore of particular interest from a gender perspective, and this book sheds light on the importance of resources for women’s struggles for political rights. Highlighting the financial strategies of the first wave of Swedish middle-class and socialist women’s movements and comparing them with similar organizations in Germany, England, and Canada, the authors show the importance of class, gender, age, and the national context, offering a valuable contribution to the discussion of resource mobilization theories in the context of social movements.


List of Figures and Tables

Introduction: Funding women’s political struggle – a matter of gender and class?
Collective action and resources – earlier research
Women’s mobilising, class, resources and political opportunities – our theoretical point of departure
Comparing the Swedish case
Economic and politic citizenship in Sweden

Chapter 1. The Fredrika Bremer Association 1884-1925
The start up
Ideas and agendas
New leadership and new directions

Chapter 2. A ‘Bourgeois’ pioneer’s purse
Membership fees
Bequests and donations
Fundraising sales
State subsidies and supporting organisations
Administration, political work and enlightenment
The voice of the organisation
A periodical as a philanthropic project
Assets and liabilities
Loan funds
Bonds, real estates and shares
Summarising conclusion

Chapter 3. Human resources in the Fredrika Bremer Association
Mobilising – the value of members
Giving their time, commitment and skills
Useful contacts in Parliament and Government
Feminist and philanthropic networks within Sweden
Feminist networks outside Sweden
Summarising conclusions

Chapter 4. Social democratic women
The road to integrated separatism - women in the Swedish SAP
Earlier research
Forms and phases of the Swedish social democratic movement
1880-1906: the paradox of gender unity and the mobilization of consensus
1906-1930: organising separately
Breaktrough from 1933
Agendas and strategies

Chapter 5. The price of turning women into socialists
Sources of income
Contributions from the labour movement
Membership fees
Extra income
Mobilising members and voters
Investments in education
Morgonbris - the voice of social democratic women in Sweden- nearly an affiliated company
Getting together - meetings
Labour Day, Birthdays and Funerals - Times for manifestations
Allocating money
Financial strategies: a summary
Class, gender and separatism - three factors in the financial strategies of socialist women’s movements

Chapter 6. Human resources in social democratic women’s organizations
The magic of number
Giving their time, commitment and skills
Access to parliaments and government
Cross-class sisters? Cooperation among Swedish women’s organisations
International connections
Compensating lack of education and money
The price of organising separately and the income from being integrated

Conclusion: Gendered Money
Independence through membership fees
Donations, bequests and successful coalitions
From needle-works to lotteries
Feminist activists as economic agents
Compensating the lack of money to keep the organization going
How did resources matter for Swedish Feminist politics?
The costs of gendered citizenship?
The resources mobilization theory and women’s organising